|Back to Main Print This Page Email to a Friend|
Dementia is significant loss of cognitive functions such as memory, judgment, attention, and abstract thinking. Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia, is a progressive brain disease. It affects more than 5 million Americans, and millions more worldwide.
Age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Most people who develop Alzheimer’s disease are 65 years old or older, and the risk increases with age. People age 85 years and older are especially at risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
Early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease may include:
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Drug therapy aims to slow disease progression and treat symptoms associated with the disease. The benefit from drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s disease is typically small, so that patients and their families may not notice any benefit.
Patients and their families need to discuss with their doctors whether drug therapy can help improve behavior or functional abilities. They also need to discuss whether or not drugs should be prescribed early in the course of the disease or delayed.
The following drugs are commonly prescribed for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain from which there is no recovery. The disease slowly attacks nerve cells in all parts of the cortex of the brain and some surrounding structures, thereby impairing a person's abilities to govern emotions, recognize errors and patterns, coordinate movement, and remember. The changes in the brain may begin to develop more than 20 years before symptoms develop. Ultimately, a person with AD loses memory and many other mental functions.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia in people age 65 years and older. Dementia is significant loss of cognitive functions such as memory, judgment, attention, and abstract thinking.
There are three brain abnormalities that are the hallmarks of the Alzheimer’s disease process:
Although no treatment has been found for curing Alzheimer’s, scientists are making advances in better understanding the disease and how it progresses. In 2011, the U.S. National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association released updated criteria on defining and diagnosing Alzheimer’s. The new criteria place Alzheimer’s into three stages:
Scientists do not know what causes Alzheimer’s disease. It may be a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that trigger the process in which brain nerve cells are destroyed.
Genetics certainly plays a role in early-onset Alzheimer's, a rare form of the disease that usually runs in families. Scientists are also investigating genetic targets for late-onset Alzheimer's, which is the more common form.
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the main gene that has been definitively linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, only a small percentage of people carry the form of ApoE (ApoE e4) that increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's. Other genes or combinations of genes may be involved. Researchers have made some preliminary identifications of other possible gene variants .
Researchers have investigated various environmental factors that may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease or may trigger the disease process in people who have a genetic susceptibility. Some studies have suggested an association between serious head injuries in early adulthood and Alzheimer’s development. Lower educational level, which may decrease mental and activity and neuron stimulation, has also been investigated. To date, there does not appear to be any evidence that infections, metals, or industrial toxins cause Alzheimer’s disease.
Alzheimer's disease is the fifth leading cause of death in American adults age 65 and older. It affects more than 5 million Americans and millions more people worldwide.
Age is the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The number of cases of Alzheimer's disease doubles every 5 years beyond age 65. According to the U.S. Alzheimer’s Association, nearly a third (32%) of people age 85 years and older have the disease. While less common, Alzheimer’s can also affect younger people. About 200,000 Americans younger than age 65 have early-onset Alzheimer’s disease.
More women than men develop Alzheimer’s disease but this is most likely because women tend to live longer than men.
African Americans and Hispanics are at greater risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease than whites. This may be in part because they have a higher prevalence of medical conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes, which are associated with increased risk for Alzheimer’s. Genetic factors may also play a role.
Having a first-degree relative (parent, brother, sister) with Alzheimer’s increases your risk for the disease. Having more than one first-degree relative with Alzheimer’s further increases risk.
People who have memory problems and other early symptoms that suggest mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be at increased risk for later developing Alzheimer’s disease. However, not everyone who has MCI goes on to have Alzheimer’s.
A history of traumatic brain injury, including a concussion, is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s.
There is growing evidence that diseases that affect the heart and vascular (blood vessel) system increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The brain requires a steady supply of oxygen-rich blood, which is supplied by a healthy pumping heart and adequate blood flow throughout the body. Conditions associated with heart and circulatory problems include high blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and type 2 diabetes. There is some evidence that controlling these conditions may help prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
Clinical trials have evaluated numerous substances for preventing Alzheimer’s disease but have not found any of them to be helpful. They included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), statin drugs, estrogen replacement therapy, folic acid supplementation, vitamin E, fish oil supplements, and herbal remedies such as ginkgo biloba.
However, certain lifestyle changes may help in Alzheimer’s disease prevention:
The early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be overlooked because they resemble signs of natural aging. However, extreme memory loss or other cognitive changes that disrupt normal life are not typical signs of aging. In addition, the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease do not begin abruptly; they develop gradually and worsen over the course of months or years.
Older adults who begin to notice a persistent mild memory loss of recent events may have a condition called mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI may be a sign of early-stage Alzheimer's in older people. Studies suggest that some, although not all, older individuals who experience such mild memory abnormalities can later develop Alzheimer's disease.
Patients may be aware of their symptoms or may be unaware that anything is wrong. The Alzheimer’s Association recommends that everyone learn these 10 warning signs of Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer’s disease can only be definitely diagnosed after death when an autopsy of the brain is performed. However, Alzheimer's diagnosis is a very active area of research. The goal is to diagnose Alzheimer's while it is still in its early stages.
Researchers are making progress studying biomarkers, chemical substances that signal changes in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease. In a recent study of biomarkers, scientists found that measuring levels of amyloid beta and tau proteins in brain imaging scans and spinal fluid may help predict the development of Alzheimer’s many years before symptoms begin. The scientific community is working on standardizing the use of biomarkers to aid in the early detection of Alzheimer’s. Biomarkers may also eventually help doctors evaluate how the disease progresses.
At this time, there is no one test that confirms a diagnosis of Alzheimer's. Doctors use a variety of tests to make a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.
The doctor will ask about the patient’s health history, including other medical conditions the patient has, recent or past illnesses, and progressive changes in mental function, behavior, or daily activities. The doctor will ask about use of prescription drugs (it is helpful to bring a complete list of the patient’s medications) and lifestyle factors, including diet and use of alcohol. The doctor will evaluate the patient’s hearing and vision, and check blood pressure and other physical signs. A neurological test will also be conducted to check reflexes, coordination, and eye movement.
Blood and urine samples may be collected. They can help the doctor evaluate other possible causes of dementia, such as thyroid imbalances or vitamin deficiencies. Researchers are studying measuring levels of amyloid beta and tau proteins in spinal fluid samples to help identify patients with memory problems who may be at risk for developing Alzheimer’s.
Several psychological tests are used to assess difficulties in attention, perception, memory, language, problem-solving, social, and language skills. These tests can also be used to evaluate mood problems such as depression.
One commonly used test is the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), which uses a series of questions and tasks to evaluate cognitive function. For example, the patient is given a series of words and asked to recall and repeat them a few minutes later. In the clock-drawing test, the patient is given a piece of paper with a circle on it and is asked to write the numbers in the face of a clock and then to show a specific time on the clock.
Imaging tests are useful for ruling out blood clots, tumors, or other structural abnormalities in the brain that may be causing signs of dementia. These tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or positron-emission testing (PET) scans.
Researchers are using MRIs and PET scans to study new approaches to diagnosing Alzheimer’s in earlier stages of the disease. Methods include measuring the volume and shrinkage (atrophy) of brain tissue with MRI and evaluating the brain’s use of glucose with PET.
In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved florbetapir (Amyvid), a radioactive dye that is used with PET scans to evaluate beta amyloid density. Patients with Alzheimer’s have a high build-up of amyloid plaques in the brain. However, high amyloid plaque density is also found in some patients with normal cognitive function as well as those who have dementias not related to Alzheimer’s. The use of the Amyvid imaging agent is mainly used to rule out Alzheimer’s disease in cases that are difficult to diagnose.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Other causes of dementia in the elderly can include:
Vascular Dementia. Vascular dementia is primarily caused by either multi-infarct dementia (multiple small strokes) or Binswanger's disease (which affects tiny arteries in the midbrain).
Lewy Bodies Variant. Lewy bodies are abnormalities found in the brains of patients with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. They can also be present in the absence of either disease; in such cases, the condition is called Lewy bodies variant (LBV). In all cases, the presence of Lewy bodies is highly associated with dementia.
Parkinson's Disease. Some of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s can be similar and the diseases may coexist. However, unlike Alzheimer's, language is not usually affected in Parkinson's related dementia.
Frontotemporal Dementia. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a term used to describe several different disorders that affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Although some of the symptoms can overlap with Alzheimer’s, people who develop this condition tend to be younger than most patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Other Conditions. A number of conditions, including many medications, can produce symptoms similar to Alzheimer's. These conditions include severe depression, drug abuse, thyroid disease, vitamin deficiencies, blood clots, infections, brain tumors, and various neurological or vascular disorders.
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease or treatment to stop its progression or reverse the symptoms. Most drugs used to treat Alzheimer's are aimed at slowing the rate at which symptoms become worse. The benefit from these drugs is generally small, and patients and their families may not even notice any benefit.
Alzheimer’s disease is classified into various stages that range from mild to moderate to severe. In the final stages of Alzheimer’s, the patient is unable to communicate and is completely dependent on others for care.
The lifespan of patients with Alzheimer's is generally reduced, although a patient may live anywhere from 4 - 20 years after diagnosis. The final phase of the disease may last from a few months to several years, during which time the patient becomes increasingly immobile and dysfunctional.
Most patients with Alzheimer’s are cared for at home, especially during the early stages of the disease. Caregiving is an enormous commitment. Support services can greatly improve the quality of life for both caretakers and their patients and make it easier for people to continue caring for patients in their homes. These services include home healthcare aides and adult day care.
As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, round-the-clock care is usually required. At this point, the family needs to decide whether in-home treatment can be continued or whether placement in a nursing home or assisted living facility is a feasible option. In choosing a facility, it is best to select one that is specialized in the care of patients with Alzheimer’s and equipped to meet their needs.
Most drugs used to treat Alzheimer's, and those under investigation, are aimed at slowing progression. There are no cures to date. In addition, the improvements from some of these drugs may be so modest that patients and their families may not notice benefit.
The FDA has approved two drug classes to treat the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease:
All of the drugs approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease are expensive. While there are generally no serious risks associated with these medications, these drugs can have a number of bothersome side effects, including indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, and fatigue.
Patients and caregivers should ask their doctors the following questions about when and if to use these drugs:
Cholinesterase inhibitors are designed to protect the cholinergic system, which is essential for memory and learning and is progressively destroyed in Alzheimer's. These drugs work by preventing the breakdown of the brain chemical acetylcholine. The first cholinesterase inhibitor, tacrine (Cognex), was approved in 1993 but is rarely prescribed today due to safety concerns of liver damage.
The three most commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease are donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine:
Side Effects. Common side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, especially when taken at higher doses, may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and upset stomach. Rivastigmine and galantamine tend to have more side effects than donepezil, and may also cause weight loss and loss of appetite. Cholinesterase inhibitors may increase the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding or ulcers, especially when used with NSAIDs (which can also cause gastric irritation).
Some drugs known as anticholinergics may offset the effects of the Alzheimer's disease pro-cholinergic drugs. Such drugs include antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, and some antidepressants and anti-incontinence drugs.
Effectiveness. Comparative studies have reported little difference in effectiveness among these drugs. In any case, the benefits of these drugs are far from dramatic and may often not be noticeable in everyday life. Many doctors have reservations about developing additional drugs that affect the cholinergic system since, at best, they only slow progression and do not appear to affect the basic destructive disease process or even the quality of a patient’s life. .
Memantine (Namenda) is approved for treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. (It does not appear to be effective for mild Alzheimer’s disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat mild-to-moderate stages of the disease.) By blocking NDMA receptors, memantine protects against the overstimulation of glutamate, an amino acid that excites nerves and, in excess, is a powerful nerve-cell killer.
Memantine is prescribed either alone or in combination with donepezil. Studies indicate that memantine may help modestly improve cognitive function and delay the progression of Alzheimer’s disease for up to 1 year. Side effects are generally mild but may include dizziness, drowsiness, or fainting.
Depression. Antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine (Prozac, generic) and sertraline (Zoloft, generic), may help reduce depression, irritability, and restlessness associated with Alzheimer's in some patients.
Apathy. Depression is often confused with apathy. An apathetic patient lacks emotions, motivation, interest, and enthusiasm while a depressed patient is generally very sad, tearful, and hopeless. Apathy may respond to stimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin, generic), rather than antidepressants.
Psychosis. Antipsychotic drugs are used to treat verbally or physically aggressive behavior and hallucinations. Because older antipsychotic drugs, such as haloperidol (Haldol, generic), have severe side effects, most doctors now prescribe newer atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone (Risperdal, generic) or olanzapine (Zyprexa).
However, these newer antipsychotic drugs can cause serious side effects, including confusion, sleepiness, and Parkinsonian-like symptoms. In addition, studies indicate that their safety risks may outweigh any possible benefits. Studies show that both atypical and older antipsychotics produce a slightly increased rate of death in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia and that atypical antipsychotics work no better than placebo in controlling psychosis, aggression, and agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s.
Most doctors recommend delaying prescribing antipsychotic medication unless absolutely necessary. They recommend first trying behavioral treatments and controlling changes in the patient’s environment and routine. Anti-seizure drugs, such as carbamazepine (Tegretol, generic) or valproate (Depakote, generic), can also sometimes treat agitation and other psychotic symptoms.
Disturbed Sleep. Patients with Alzheimer's disease commonly experience disturbances in their sleep/wake cycles. Moderately short-acting sleeping drugs, such as temazepam (Restoril, generic), zolpidem (Ambien, generic), or zaleplon (Sonata, generic), or sedating antidepressants, such as trazodone (Desyrel, generic), may be useful in managing insomnia. However, these drugs increase the risk of falling, confusion, and abnormal behavior and must be used with considerable caution and restraint.
Some research suggests that exposure to brighter-than-normal artificial light during the day for patients with normal vision may help reset wake/sleep cycles and prevent nighttime wandering and sleeplessness. Sleep hygiene methods (regular times for meal and bed, exercise, avoiding caffeine) can also be helpful.
Caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s face enormous challenges. Few diseases disrupt patients and their families so completely or for so long a period of time as Alzheimer's. The following tips may help caregivers better cope with some of the issues and behaviors associated with this disease.
There is no single Alzheimer's personality, just as there is no single human personality. All patients must be treated as the individuals they continue to be, even after their social self has vanished.
Patients with Alzheimer’s often display abrupt mood swings, and some become aggressive and angry. Some of this erratic behavior is caused by chemical changes in the brain. But it may also be due to the experience of losing knowledge and understanding of one's surroundings, causing fear and frustration that patients can no longer express verbally.
The following recommendations for caregivers may help soothe patients and avoid agitation:
Although much attention is given to the negative emotions of patients with Alzheimer's disease, some patients become extremely gentle, retaining an ability to laugh at themselves or appreciate simple visual jokes even after their verbal abilities have disappeared. Some patients may seem to be in a drug-like or "mystical" state, focusing on the present experience as their past and future slip away. Encouraging and even enjoying such states may bring comfort to both the patient and the caregiver.
For the caregiver, grooming the patient can be challenging. Many patients resist bathing or taking a shower. Some patients find bathing confusing or frightening. Some spouses find that showering with their afflicted mate can solve the problem for a while. Establishing a daily and familiar routine can be helpful.
Often patients with Alzheimer's disease lose their sense of color and design and will put on odd or mismatched clothing. It is important to maintain a sense of humor and perspective and to learn which battles are worth fighting and which ones are best abandoned. Caregivers can pick a selection of outfits and allow the patient to select a favorite. Try to choose clothes that are easy to put on and take off.
Weight loss and the gradual inability to swallow are two major related problems in late-stage Alzheimer's and are associated with an increased risk of death. As Alzheimer’s progresses, patients may change their food preferences or find some kinds of foods more difficult to eat. Try different foods and be sure to allow enough time for the patient to eat. Limit distractions around mealtimes. Because choking is a danger, you should learn how to administer the Heimlich maneuver. Dehydration can also become a problem. It is important to encourage fluid intake equal to 8 glasses of watalso er daily. Coffee and tea are mild diuretics that may deplete fluid.
Patients at any stage of dementia -- including mild -- are at high risk for unsafe driving. Typical Alzheimer’s symptoms -- such as difficulty remembering and navigating locations, poor judgment, and slow decision making -- all pose dangers for driving. A history of recent citations, crashes, or aggressive or reckless driving are specific warning signs. As soon as Alzheimer's is diagnosed, the patient should be prevented from driving. This includes hiding car keys.
Wandering is a common problem. As memory problems worsen, patients may become easily confused, disoriented, and lost. The following precautions are recommended:
Incontinence (loss of control of bowel or urine function) is one of the main reasons why many caregivers decide to seek nursing home placement. When the patient first shows signs of incontinence, the doctor should make sure that it is not caused by an infection. Urinary incontinence may be controlled for some time by trying to monitor times of liquid intake, feeding, and urinating. Once a schedule has been established, the caregiver may be able to anticipate incontinent episodes and get the patient to the toilet before they occur.
As the disease progresses to later stages, patients become immobile, literally forgetting how to move. Eventually, they become almost entirely wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Bedsores can be a major problem. Sheets must be kept clean, dry, and free of food. The patient's skin should be washed frequently, gently blotted thoroughly dry, and moisturizers applied. Try to move the patient every few hours and keep their feet kept raised with pillows or pads. Manipulation exercises can help keep legs and arms flexible.
Most patients with Alzheimer's disease are cared for at home by family members, who often lack adequate support, finances, or training for this difficult job. The patient's family endures two separate losses and grieves twice:
Caregiving for a loved one with Alzheimer’s is undoubtably stressful. It is extremely important for caregivers to take care of their own physical and emotional health. Depression, exhaustion, guilt, and anger can lead to caregiver burnout as well as poor health.
Seek out support from family, friends, and professional associations. Such support includes individual and family counseling, support groups, and stress management and problem-solving techniques
1. Although I cannot control the disease process, I need to remember I can control many aspects of how it affects my relative.
2. I need to take care of myself so that I can continue doing the things that are most important.
3. I need to simplify my lifestyle so that my time and energy are available for things that are really important at this time.
4. I need to cultivate the gift of allowing others to help me, because caring for my relative is too big a job to be done by one person.
5. I need to take one day at a time rather than worry about what may or may not happen in the future.
6. I need to structure my day because a consistent schedule makes life easier for me and my relative.
7. I need to have a sense of humor because laughter helps to put things in a more positive perspective.
8. I need to remember that my relative is not being difficult on purpose; rather their behavior and emotions are distorted by the illness.
9. I need to focus on and enjoy what my relative can still do rather than constantly lament over what is gone.
10. I need to increasingly depend upon other relationships for love and support.
11. I need to frequently remind myself that I am doing the best that I can at this very moment.
12. I need to draw upon the Higher Power, which I believe is available to me.
Source: The American Journal of Alzheimer's Care and Related Disorders & Research, Nov/Dec 1989
ADAPT Research Group, Lyketsos CG, Breitner JC, Green RC, Martin BK, Meinert C, et al. Naproxen and celecoxib do not prevent AD in early results from a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2007 May 22;68(21):1800-8. Epub 2007 Apr 25.
Albert MS, Dekosky ST, Dickson D, Dubois B, Feldman HH, Fox NC, et al. The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Dement. 2011 May;7(3):270-9. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
Alzheimer's Association. 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Dement. 2013 Mar;9(2):208-45..
Ayalon L, Gum AM, Feliciano L, Arean PA. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Nov 13;166(20):2182-8.
Ballard C, Gauthier S, Corbett A, Brayne C, Aarsland D, Jones E. Alzheimer's disease. Lancet. 2011 Mar 19;377(9770):1019-31. Epub 2011 Mar 1.
Bateman RJ, Xiong C, Benzinger TL, Fagan AM, Goate A, Fox NC, et al. Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Daviglus ML, Bell CC, Berrettini W, Bowen PE, Connolly ES Jr, Cox NJ, et al. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference statement: preventing alzheimer disease and cognitive decline. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Aug 3;153(3):176-81. Epub 2010 Jun 14.
De Meyer G, Shapiro F, Vanderstichele H, Vanmechelen E, Engelborghs S, De Deyn PP, et al. Diagnosis-independent Alzheimer disease biomarker signature in cognitively normal elderly people. Arch Neurol. 2010 Aug;67(8):949-56.
Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, Kok FJ, Jolles J, Katan MB, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16.
Gu Y, Nieves JW, Stern Y, Luchsinger JA, Scarmeas N. Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet. Arch Neurol. 2010 Jun;67(6):699-706. Epub 2010 Apr 12.
Isaac MG, Quinn R, Tabet N. Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD002854.
Iverson DJ, Gronseth GS, Reger MA, Classen S, Dubinsky RM, Rizzo M; Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter update: evaluation and management of driving risk in dementia: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2010 Apr 20;74(16):1316-24. Epub 2010 Apr 12.
Jack CR Jr, Albert MS, Knopman DS, McKhann GM, Sperling RA, Carrillo MC, et al. Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Dement. 2011 May;7(3):257-62. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
Jonsson T, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Jonsdottir I, Jonsson PV, Snaedal J, Variant of TREM2 associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 10;368(2):107-16. Epub 2012 Nov 14.
Knopfman DS. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 409.
Lautenschlager NT, Cox KL, Flicker L, Foster JK, van Bockxmeer FM, Xiao J, et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Sep 3;300(9):1027-37.
Mayeux R. Early Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 10;362(4):2194-2201.
McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR Jr, Kawas CH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Dement. 2011 May;7(3):263-9. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
Querfurth HW, LaFerla FM. Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jan 28;362(4):329-44.
Quinn JF, Raman R, Thomas RG, Yurko-Mauro K, Nelson EB, Van Dyck C, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2010 Nov 3;304(17):1903-11.
Regan C, Katona C, Walker Z, Hooper J, Donovan J, Livingston G. Relationship of vascular risk to the progression of Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1357-62.
Reitz C, Jun G, Naj A, Rajbhandary R, Vardarajan BN, Wang LS, et al. Variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA7), apolipoprotein E ?4,and the risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. JAMA. 2013 Apr 10;309(14):1483-92.
Roe CM, Fagan AM, Grant EA, Hassenstab J, Moulder KL, Maue Dreyfus D, et al. Amyloid imaging and CSF biomarkers in predicting cognitive impairment up to 7.5 years later. Neurology. 2013 May 7;80(19):1784-91. Epub 2013 Apr 10.
Scarmeas N, Luchsinger JA, Schupf N, Brickman AM, Cosentino S, Tang MX, et al. Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2009 Aug 12;302(6):627-37.
Schneider LS, Dagerman KS, Higgins JP, McShane R. Lack of evidence for the efficacy of memantine in mild Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2011 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Seshadri S, Fitzpatrick AL, Ikram MA, DeStefano AL, Gudnason V, Boada M, et al. Genome-wide analysis of genetic loci associated with Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2010 May 12;303(18):1832-40.
Sofi F, Cesari F, Abbate R, Gensini GF, Casini A. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Sep 11;337:a1344. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1344.
Snitz BE, O'Meara ES, Carlson MC, Arnold AM, Ives DG, Rapp SR, et al. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009 Dec 23;302(24):2663-70.
Sperling RA, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, Bennett DA, Craft S, Fagan AM, et al. Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Dement. 2011 May;7(3):280-92. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
Vellas B, Coley N, Ousset PJ, Berrut G, Dartigues JF, Dubois B, et al. Long-term use of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (GuidAge): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Oct;11(10):851-9. Epub 2012 Sep 6..
On a mission to heal body, mind and spirit