Pregnant women, to help prevent them from passing the virus to the baby
When a patient has an unusual infection
A negative test result is normal. But persons with early HIV infection (acute HIV infection or primary HIV infection) often have a negative test result.
What Abnormal Results Mean
A positive result on the ELISA screening test does not mean that the person has HIV infection. Certain conditions may lead to a false positive result, such as Lyme disease, syphilis, and lupus.
A positive ELISA test is always followed by a Western blot test. A positive Western blot confirms an HIV infection. A negative Western blot test means the ELISA test was a false positive test. The Western blot test can also be unclear, in which case more testing is done.
Negative tests do not rule out HIV infection. There is a period of time, called the window period, between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies. During this period, antibodies usually cannot be measured.
If a person might have acute or primary HIV infection and is in the window period, a negative HIV ELISA and Western blot will not rule out HIV infection. More tests for HIV are needed.
Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
Fainting or feeling light-headed
Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
People who are at high risk (men who have sex with men, injection drug users and their sexual partners, commercial sex workers) should be regularly tested for HIV.
If the health care provider suspects early acute HIV infection, other tests (such as HIV viral load) will be needed to confirm this diagnosis, because the HIV ELISA/Western blot test may be negative during this window period.
Dewar R, Goldstein D, Maldarelli F. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Mandell GL, Bennett GE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2009:chap 119.
Warner EA, Herold AH. Interpreting laboratory tests. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of family medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 15
Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial Team.