Some, but not all expert organizations, recommend self-exam if you are a teenager or young adult (to about 35 years old). It is not clear that performing this exam when you have no symptoms would decrease the risk of dying from testicular cancer.
Each testicle should feel firm, but not rock hard. One testicle may be lower or slightly larger than the other.
Talk to your health care provider if you have questions.
What Abnormal Results Mean
If you find a small, hard lump (like a pea), have an enlarged testicle, or notice any other differences that do not seem normal, see your health care provider right away.
Call your health care provider if:
You cannot find one or both testicles -- the testicles may not have descended properly in the scrotum
There is a soft collection of thin tubes above the testicle -- this may be a collection of widened veins (varicocele)
You have pain or swelling in the scrotum -- this may be an infection or a fluid-filled sac (hydrocele) causing a blockage of blood flow to the area
Sudden, severe (acute) pain in the scrotum or testicle that lasts for more than a few minutes is an emergency. If you have this type of pain, seek medical attention right away.
A lump in the testicle is often the first sign of testicular cancer. If you find a lump, see a health care provider right away. Most testicular cancers are very treatable. Keep in mind that some cases of testicular cancer do not show symptoms until they reach an advanced stage.
Montgomery JS, Bloom DA. The diagnosis and management of scrotal masses. Med Clin North Am. 2011;235-244.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for testicular cancer. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:483-486.
Louis S. Liou, MD, PhD, Chief of Urology, Cambridge Health Alliance, Visiting Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.