Lung transplant is surgery to replace one or both diseased lungs with healthy lungs from a human donor.
Solid organ transplant - lung
In most cases, the new lung or lungs are usually donated by a person who is under age 65 and brain-dead but is still on life-support. The donor tissue must be matched as closely as possible to your tissue type. This reduces the chances that the body will reject the transplant.
Lungs can also be given by living donors. Two or more people are needed. Each person donates a segment (lobe) of their lung. This forms an entire lung for the person who is receiving it.
During lung transplant surgery, you are asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia). A surgical cut is made in the chest. Lung transplant surgery is done with the use of a heart-lung machine. This device does the work of your heart while your heart is stopped for the surgery.
For single lung transplants, the cut is made on the side of your chest where the lung will be transplanted. The operation takes 4 - 8 hours. In most cases, the lung with the worst function is removed.
For double lung transplants, the cut is made below the breast and reaches to both sides of the chest. Surgery takes 6 - 12 hours. Tubes are used to send blood to a heart-lung bypass machine to provide oxygen and move blood through the body during the surgery.
After the cut is made, the major steps during lung transplant surgery include:
One or both of your lungs are removed. For patients who are having a double lung transplant, most or all of the steps from the first transplant are completed before the second transplant is done.
The main blood vessels and airway of the new lung are sewn to your blood vessels and airway. The donor lobe or lung is stitched (sutured) into place. Chest tubes are inserted to drain air, fluid, and blood out of the chest for several days to allow the lungs to fully re-expand.
Sometimes, heart and lung transplants are done at the same time (heart-lung transplant) if the heart is also diseased.
Why the Procedure Is Performed
In most cases, a lung transplant is done only after all other treatments for lung failure unsuccessful. Lung transplants may be recommended for patients under age 65 who have severe lung disease. Some examples of diseases that may require a lung transplant are:
Damage to the arteries of the lung because of a defect in the heart at birth (congenital defect)
Destruction of the large airways and lung (bronchiectasis)
Emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Lung conditions in which the lung tissues become swollen and scarred (interstitial lung disease)
High blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs (pulmonary hypertension)
Lung transplant may not be done for patients who:
Are too sick or badly nourished to go through the procedure
Continue to smoke or abuse alcohol or other drugs
Have active hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV
Have had cancer within the past 2 years
Have lung disease that will likely affect the new lung
Have severe disease of other organs
The doctor may recommend against a lung transplant if there is concern that you will not be able to keep up with the many hospital and doctor's visits, tests, and medications needed to keep the new lung healthy.
Risks of lung transplant include:
Blood clots (deep venous thrombosis)
Diabetes, bone thinning, or high cholesterol levels from the medications given after a transplant
Increased risk for infections due to anti-rejection (immunosuppression) medications
Damage to your kidneys, liver, or other organs from anti-rejection medications
Future risk of certain cancers
Problems at the place where the new blood vessels and airways were attached
Rejection of the new lung, which may happen right away, within the first 4 to 6 weeks, or over time
Before the Procedure
The doctor will do the following tests to determine if you are a good candidate for the operation:
Blood tests or skin tests to check for infections
Tests to evaluate your heart, such as EKG, echocardiogram, or cardiac catheterization
Tests to evaluate your lungs
Tests to look for early cancer (Pap smear, mammogram, colonoscopy)
Tissue typing, to help make sure your body will not reject the donated lung
Good candidates for transplant are put on a national waiting list. Your place on the waiting list is based on a number of factors, including:
What type of lung problems you have
The severity of your lung disease
The likelihood that a transplant will be successful
For most adults, the amount of time you spend on a waiting list usually does not determine how soon you get a lung. Waiting time is often at least 2 - 3 years.
While you are waiting for a new lung:
Follow any diet your lung transplant team recommends. Stop drinking alcohol, do not smoke, and keep your weight in the recommended range.
Take all medicines as they were prescribed. Report changes in your medications and medical problems that are new or get worse to the transplant team.
Follow any exercise program that you were taught during pulmonary rehabilitation.
Keep any appointments that you have made with your regular doctor and transplant team.
Let the transplant team know how to contact you right away if a lung becomes available. Make sure that you can be contacted quickly and easily.
Be prepared in advance to go to the hospital.
Before the procedure, always tell your doctor or nurse:
What drugs, vitamins, herbs, and other supplements you are taking, even ones you bought without a prescription.
If you have been drinking a lot of alcohol (more than one or two drinks a day)
Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before your surgery. Take only the drugs that your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.
After the Procedure
You should expect to stay in the hospital for 7 - 21 days after a lung transplant. You will likely spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) right after surgery. Most centers that perform lung transplants have standard ways of treating and managing lung transplant patients.
The recovery period is about 6 months. Often, your transplant team will ask you to stay close to the hospital for the first 3 months. You will need to have regular check-ups with blood tests and x-rays for many years.
A lung transplant is a major procedure that is performed for patients with life-threatening lung disease or damage.
Around four out of five people are still alive 1 year after the transplant. Around two out of five transplant recipients are alive at 5 years. The highest risk of death is during the first year, mainly from problems such as rejection.
Fighting rejection is an ongoing process. The body's immune system considers the transplanted organ as an invader (much like an infection) and may attack it.
To prevent rejection, organ transplant patients must take anti-rejection (immunosuppression) drugs. These drugs suppress the body's immune response and reduce the chance of rejection. As a result, however, these drugs also reduce the body's natural ability to fight off infections.
By 5 years after a lung transplant, at least one in five people develop cancers or have problems with the heart. For most people, the quality of life is improved after a lung transplant. They have better exercise endurance and are able to do more on a daily basis.
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Flume PA, Mogayzel PJ Jr, Robinson KA, Rosenblatt RL, Quittell L, Marshall BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Pulmonary Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: Pulmonary complications: hemoptysis and pneumothorax. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010; 182(3):298-306.
Kotloff RM. Lung transplantation. In: Mason RJ, Broaddus CV, Martin TR, et al. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 95.
Matthew M. Cooper, MD, FACS, Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery; Medical Director, CareCore National, Bluffton, SC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.